Looking to use my hand and tongue

Added: Courtny Karp - Date: 08.07.2021 03:40 - Views: 16234 - Clicks: 1570

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The symptom of tongue deviation is observed in a stroke or transient ischemic attack. Nevertheless, there is much room for the interpretation of the tongue deviation test. The crucial factor is the lack of an effective quantification method of tongue deviation. If we can quantify the features of the tongue deviation and scientifically verify the relationship between the deviation angle and a stroke, the information provided by the tongue will be helpful in recognizing a warning of a stroke.

In this study, a quantification method of the tongue deviation angle was proposed for the first time to characterize stroke patients. We captured the tongue images of stroke patients 15 males and 10 females, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age ; transient ischemic attack TIA patients 16 males and 9 females, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age ; and normal subjects 14 males and 11 females, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age to analyze whether the method is effective.

In addition, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve ROC for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning of a stroke. The means and standard deviations of the tongue deviation angles of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were: 6. The p- values between the stroke group and the normal group, as well as between the TIA group and the normal group were both less than 0.

These show the ificant differences in the tongue deviation angle between the patient groups stroke and TIA patients and the normal group. These also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient group stroke and TIA patients and the normal group. The variation showed the essentiality of the quantification method in a clinical setting. In summary, we developed an effective quantification method to characterize the tongue deviation angle, and we confirmed the feasibility of recognizing the tongue deviation angle as an early warning of an impending stroke.

Stroke, a Looking to use my hand and tongue vascular incident, is mainly caused by abnormal blood vessels in the brain. According to the statistical of the World Health Organization WHOstroke remains the worldwide second leading cause of death.

Looking to use my hand and tongue

It is estimated that one in five stroke survivors will have the chance of a second stroke within five years. Thus, it has a high recurrence rate, and recurrence can bring about disability and dementia, often leading to a heavy burden for an individual household, a community, and ultimately society in general.

Looking to use my hand and tongue

This reminds us how important it is to prevent, recognize and monitor the stroke subject. A stroke, often occurring suddenly, happens for two main reasons. Firstly, a hemorrhagic stroke from a weakened vessel that ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain. Secondly, and more commonly, an ischemic stroke occurs when an artery in the brain becomes blocked. If a major artery to the brain is blocked, part of the brain tissue can die from lack of oxygen carried in the blood.

When brain tissue dies, the effects on the body will depend on which body functions that part of the brain controls. Some of the effects on the body are quite well known and are commonly recognized as the result of a stroke. A stroke will produce changes in the body and affect various functions, including the sensory function, action function, language ability, the swallowing function, etc.

For instance, paralysis of the right side of the body right-sided stroke will be caused by damage to the left half of the brain. In most patients, inability to speak will also be due to damage to the left side of the brain, because the left side of the brain controls speech. The damaged area can be so small that the blood supply to other parts of the brain can compensate, and a full recovery takes place.

Dizziness and giddiness, blurred vision, and unsteadiness are the typical symptoms of a TIA. These symptoms resolve themselves in less than 24 hours. People often disregard the mini-stroke, failing to recognize that the TIA may be a warning that a more severe stroke may take place [ 1 ]. It is not uncommon for those who experience but disregard the TIA to have a stroke several days later. Therefore, recognizing the symptoms of a TIA and recognizing the TIA as a warning may make it possible to prevent a stroke. The tongue in mammals has important motor and sensory functions.

When the motor cortex in the brain is damaged, the hypoglossal nerve, which is a pure motor nerve innervating the muscles of the tongue, will be defective. Therefore, the tongue will have a tendency to turn away from the midline when extended or protruded, and it will deviate toward the side of the lesion. This is called tongue deviation [ 2 - 5 ]. Hence, the symptom of tongue deviation is Looking to use my hand and tongue in a stroke or TIA [ 5 - 8 ]. The symptom of tongue deviation in stroke patients has been observed from ancient to modern times.

Many people may recognize the more common symptoms of a stroke, such as slurred speech or paralysis of one side of the body; however, fewer are familiar with tongue deviation. How crooked is crooked? How far to one side does the tongue have to be regarded as a clear of a stroke having occurred? There are too many variables with tongue deviation. In this study, we developed a simple and effective method to quantify the deviation angle of the crooked tongue, and we conducted the experiments to verify the feasibility of using the tongue deviation angle as the warning of a stroke.

Finally, we used the receiver operating characteristic curve ROC for the sensitivity analysis, and determined the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle for the warning of a stroke. We built a brace rack to support the chin in order to fix the tongue position. Subjects were asked to make the tongue protrude. Thus, we were able to remove skin, tooth, lip, background, etc. In the following steps, we will start to quantify the angle of tongue deviation.

The first step is to locate the root point of the tongue, which is defined as the center point at the bottom of the tongue. Before locating the root point, the left side and right side points of the tongue bottom should be found.

Looking to use my hand and tongue

The searching order of the left oblique starts from point 0,0and then 0,11,00,21,12,0etc. The first point is called the left oblique point. The searching order of the right oblique starts from the top right point m, nand then m-1, nm, n-1m-2, netc.

The first point is called the right oblique point. The middle point between the left and right oblique points is defined as the root point of the tongue. The steps for finding the tongue center point are detailed as follows:. As soon as the horizontal position of the tongue center point was found, the center point of the tongue was specifically determined.

Looking to use my hand and tongue

Both operators were given a brief practical introduction to the technique of the tongue deviation angle, and then they performed 30 practice measurements over 5 days before embarking on the experiments. After Looking to use my hand and tongue the first capture of the tongue image by operator 1 and a minute rest, we conducted the second capture by operator 2 in order to assess the reproducibility of the tongue deviation angles between operators.

Next, after a minute rest, we conducted the third capture again by operator 1 to assess the within-operator difference. There were 25 subjects involved in the reproducibility experiments. ICCs between the first and second measurement, and between the first and third measurement, are 0. The aforementioned imply the excellent reliability for the intra-rater and inter-rater analyses.

Consequently, there is high reproducibility in the measurements of the tongue deviation angle. The subjects enrolled in the experiment included three groups. The first group comprised 25 stroke patients undergoing treatment, ranging between 55 and 82 years of age 15 males and 10 females. The second group comprised 25 TIA patients undergoing treatment, ranging between 53 and 79 years of age 16 males and 9 femalesand the third group comprised 25 normal subjects with no stroke or TIA, ranging between 52 and 80 years of age 14 males and 11 females.

None of the subjects in the stroke group and the TIA group overlapped. The tongue was observed from the front with the examiner manually correcting any confounding mouth asymmetry. The position and configuration of the median raphe in relation to the nasal bridge were used to estimate the deviation.

All participants were asked not to imbibe any alcoholic or caffeinated beverages on the day of the experiment. The experiment protocol was approved; written informed consent was obtained from all of the participants before they enrolled in this study. The means and standard deviations of the stroke, TIA, and normal groups were 6.

All the corresponding p -values are greater than 0. The p- values between the stroke and normal groups, as well as between the TIA and normal groups, were both less than 0. These also imply that the tongue deviation angle can effectively identify the patient groups stroke and TIA patients and the normal group. The optimum operating point of the ROC curve corresponds to the threshold value of the tongue deviation angle of 3.

Thus, a tongue deviation angle greater than 3. Various techniques may assist in monitoring the brain.

Looking to use my hand and tongue

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