Women for sex Bailen

Added: Edwin Keesee - Date: 19.11.2021 02:13 - Views: 42815 - Clicks: 9314

A high intake of dietary saturated fatty acids SFAs is related to an increased risk of obesity, inflammation and Women for sex Bailen diseases, and this risk is attenuated only when SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats and unrefined carbohydrates. The gut microbiota has recently emerged as a new environmental factor in the pathophysiology of these disorders, and is also one of the factors most influenced by diet.

We sought to determine whether the gut microbiota of healthy individuals whose intake of SFAs exceeds World Health Organization WHO recommendations exhibits features similar to those reported in people with obesity, inflammation, cancer or metabolic disease. Healthy non-obese subjects were divided into two groups based on their SFAs intake. Body composition and gut microbiota composition were analyzed, and associations between bacterial taxa, diet and body fat composition were determined globally and separately by sex.

PICRUSt analysis confirmed these data, showing a correlation with a decrease in the abundance of sequences encoding for transporters of some Women for sex Bailen such as iron, which is needed to maintain a healthy metabolism. Thus, the microbiota of healthy people on a high SFAs diet contain bacterial taxa Anaerotruncus, Lachnospiraceae Flavonifractor, Campylobacter, Erysipelotrichacea and Eisenbergiella that could be related to the development of some diseases, especially obesity and other pro-inflammatory diseases in women.

In summary, the present study identifies bacterial taxa that could be considered as early predictors for the onset of different diseases in healthy subjects. Also, sex differences in gut microbiota suggest that women and men differentially benefit from following a specific diet. An unbalanced or unhealthy diet is associated with the onset of several diseases. For example, a diet rich in red meat has been linked to colorectal cancer, and there is strong evidence for the involvement of some dietary fats in weight increase and cardiovascular disease CVD 1. The increased intake of saturated fatty acids SFAs is associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein LDL in serum 2 and elevated oxidative stress, which can play a ificant role in cancer progression and colonic inflammation 3.

There is also evidence to suggest that decreasing the intake of SFAs and replacing them with simple carbohydrates does not reduce CVD incidence, and only when SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats mainly polyunsaturated is a decrease in CVD incidence observed 4. However, the last few decades have seen a ificant increase in the consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products, which are rich in fats, particularly SFAs.

Accumulating data suggest that the relationship between our diet and our health is mediated, at least in part, by the gut microbiota, which has recently emerged as an influential factor in many diseases. Imbalances in the gut microbiota termed dysbiosis are associated with colon cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular events, among others 9.

Among the known factors that can shape the gut microbiota, dietary components are one of the most important 10and several studies have shown that HFD modifies the gut microbiota of both animals and humans. For example, HFD-fed mice show increases in the abundance of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriaand concomitant reductions in health-promoting bacteria such as those of the Bacteroidetes phylum, and Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia genera 11 — Additionally, HFD diminishes microbial richness and increases the abundance of Gram-negative bacteria, which can enhance intestinal permeability In turn, this can lead to the translocation of lipopolysaccharide LPS to the systemic circulation 17triggering low-grade inflammation 18 HFD consumption in humans in loss of bacterial diversity 20with a higher abundance of Bilophila, Alistipes, Blautia and several genera of the Gammaproteobacteria class, and a lower abundance of Bacteroides, Clostridiumand Roseburia spp.

Women for sex Bailen

Importantly, not only is the quantity of fat important, but also the type. Animal studies indicate that whereas Women for sex Bailen have a detrimental effect on gut microbiota, weight gain, intestinal permeability and proinflammatory status, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can have beneficial effects on the host microbial ecosystem, body weight loss and anti-inflammatory response To date, however, very few studies have explored the relationship between SFAs intake and gut microbiota.

In light of the above evidence, the present study was deed to compare the microbiota features of subjects whose SFAs intake exceeded WHO recommendations with those who consumed recommended amounts of SFAs.

We studied the microbiota composition of healthy non-obese men and women to explore features that could precede the development of some chronic disorders in a healthy population. We analyzed all data by sex, as the parameters of body composition, dietary requirements predisposition, incidence of diseases and associated microbiota dysbiosis differs between men and women This was an observational cross-sectional study of healthy individuals.

Volunteers were recruited using posters, social networks, and magazines. The study was carried out at Universidad Europea de Madrid Madrid, Spainand was limited to men and women aged 18—45 years and with a body mass index BMI of Exclusion criteria were Women for sex Bailen following: any kind of pathology during the study or in the 6 months prior to itgastrointestinal surgery, antibiotics intake or modification of diet during 3 months prior to the study, intake of any drug with the exception of contraceptive pills 1 month before the study, smoking, use of prebiotics or probiotics, vegetarian or vegan diets, nutritional or ergogenic complements, pregnancy, or lactation.

All subjects were Caucasian. A total of volunteers were recruited and gave written and informed consent prior to participation. The following body composition measurements were collected: estimated visceral adipose tissue VATbody fat percentage BFPbody fat mass BFMtotal lean mass and fat and lean mass distribution in the trunk and extremities. Bacterial DNA was extracted using the E. Dietary pattern assessment was carried out using a validated FFQ with 93 food items The FFQ was given to participants to complete on the day they donated the fecal samples. Data from the FFQ were analyzed using Dietsource software 3.

The bp amplicon was visualized in an ethidium bromide-stained 0. Beta-diversity was evaluated by calculating Bray-Curtis, Jaccard, unweighted and weighted Unifrac distance metrics To study alpha diversity, observed operational taxonomic units OTUsevenness, and Shannon and Faith's phylogenetic diversity indices were calculated. Variable normal distribution was assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. When normal distribution was not assumed, non-parametric tests were performed. Intergroup comparisons of variables were performed with a t -test or the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size LEfSe v1. Linear regression analysis was performed for those microbial taxa that were ificantly different between high and low SFAs consumption. Multiple regression models were built when multiple variables were predictive.

Women for sex Bailen

The study de flow-chart is shown in Supplementary Figure 1. Of the volunteers recruited, 71 met the inclusion criteria and included 37 men and 34 women S1 aged between 22 and 43 years. Data on macronutrients and food intake extracted from the FFQ are shown in Table 1 and Supplementary Table 1respectively. No ificant differences between the groups were found for energy or protein intake.

Dietary reports of the HSFA groups revealed that total fat intake was above the recommended dose and carbohydrates intake was below Table 1. Likewise, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts was ificantly lower in the HSFA group than in the LSFA group, whereas the consumption of potatoes was ificantly higher Supplementary Table 1. Dietary habits were also analyzed by sex.

Differences were also found in relation to the percentages of the energy provided by total fat and the percentages of the different types of fat, Women for sex Bailen the consumption of all being ificantly greater in women following an HSFA diet Table 1. As body composition differs between in men and women, body composition data were stratified for sex. No ificant differences were found in the body composition parameters of women Supplementary Table 2. Analysis of the sequencing data showed that average of re per sample was 26, Rarefaction curves based on observed species, Shannon, and phylogenetic distance measures were virtually saturated, indicating sufficient sequencing depth data not shown.

There was, however, a trend toward ificance for evenness, which would indicate probable differences in taxa abundance distribution between the groups. LEfSe analysis of the entire population studied considering both men and women at the genus level showed an increase in the abundance of sequences belonging to Blautia, Lactobacillus, Flavonifractor, Anaerotruncus genera and an uncultured genus of the Ruminoccococeae family in the HSFA group, whereas the microbiota of the LSFA group was enriched for a genus from the Ruminococcaceae family Ruminococcaceae UCGSaccharimonadales, Patescibacteria and an uncultured genus of the Saccharimonadaceae family Figure 1.

Figure 1. The central point represents the root of the tree Bacteriaand each ring represents the next lower taxonomic level phylum through genera. The diameter of each circle represents the relative abundance of the taxon; Histogram of LDA score, only the taxa with a ificant LDA threshold value above 2 are shown.

Women for sex Bailen

Figure 2. Analysis of the microbiota from the HSFA-W group revealed an enrichment of the phylum Epsilobacteraeotaspecifically the Campylobacter genus. Figure 3.

Women for sex Bailen

Non-parametric bivariate correlation analysis was performed to study the association between diet and gut microbiota. Spearman's rank heatmap of gut microbiota and diet Figure 4 showed ificant correlations for six genera in men, 10 genera in women, and five genera when men and women were studied altogether, according to SFAs consumption. For the entire population studied, Anaerotruncus, Flavonifractor and Blautia correlated negatively with carbohydrates and positively with total fat and SFAs, with the opposite found for Ruminococcaceae UCG.

Figure 4. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of variables diet and body composition on differences found in microbial taxa Tables 2 — 4. The presence of Anaerotruncus was positively explained by the amount of SFAs in diet, the abundance of Blautia was partly due to consumption of PUFAs, and the presence of Flavonifractor by total fats. The intake of carbohydrates was positively related to the presence of Ruminococcaceae UCG and Dialisterthe latter also being linked to the intake of fiber and fruits.

Adiposity body parameters partially predicted the presence of Veillonella and Eisenbergiella and Lachnospiraceae GCA Table 3. Table 2. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the bacterial taxa ificantly different between HSFA and LSFA groups as dependent variants, and diet and body composition parameters as independent variants. Table 3. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the bacterial taxa ificantly different between HSFA-M and LSFA-M groups as dependent variants, and diet and body composition parameters as independent variants.

Table 4. Multivariate linear regression analysis of the bacterial taxa ificantly different between HSFA-W and LSFA-W groups as dependent variants, and diet and body composition parameters as independent variants. PICRUSt analysis was used to infer the functional capabilities of the microbial communities by predicting functional genes that are associated with different taxa. LEfSe analysis identified several pathways that were enriched in high and low SFAs consumption groups.

Considering the differences observed when analyzing microbiota composition, the PICRUSt and Lefse analysis were performed with the population stratified by sex. Unhealthy eating habits can lead to the development of numerous chronic illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, CVD, and diabetes.

There is growing evidence that some of these disorders are associated with specific features of the gut microbiota, which differ from those of healthy individuals However, it is not known with any precision when the microbiota begins to present characteristics that differ from those found in healthy subjects. We aimed to determine whether the microbiota of a healthy population, in the absence of obesity or any type of diagnosed disease, and following a diet rich Women for sex Bailen HSFA, has a higher proportion of bacterial taxa reported to be related to the onset of pathological processes.

While the population was initially divided into low- and high-SFA intake according to dietary SFAs content, an intrinsic negative association between SFAs and fiber intake was observed. Therefore, our show the effect of a diet rich in Women for sex Bailen and low in fiber. We analyzed the data by sex because of the known differences between males and females for predisposition and incidence of diseases, and development of microbiota dysbiosis High fat intake is considered an energy-dense diet and is usually associated with a low intake of carbohydrates, including fiber, and a moderate intake of proteins, which overall disrupts the dietary pattern and le to an imbalanced diet Obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis have been ly associated with diets rich in fats but low in fiber Although diet is known to shape the gut microbiota, there are relatively few human studies that address the effect of macronutrient content.

It was initially thought that the interaction of dietary fats with intestinal microbiota was negligible, since dietary fat is absorbed in the proximal portion of the intestine and does not reach the colon.

Women for sex Bailen

It is now known, however, that it does indeed reach the colon, where it can serve as a food substrate for some bacteria and also exert antimicrobial effects Most studies focusing on the effect of HFD on gut microbiota have been performed in animal models 23where it has been observed that HSFA diets induce microbial changes associated with obesity, including loss of bacterial diversity and inflammatory response We observed that when participants were studied together both men and womenthose with a high intake of SFAs HSFA showed an increased abundance of Anaerotruncus, Eisenbergiella, Lachnospiraceae, Campylobacter, Flavonifractorand Erysipelatoclostridiumwhich are known to correlate with weight gain 41 and have also been reported in various diseases, such as obesity 42colorectal cancer 4344lupus erythematosus 45allergies 40and some intestinal diseases

Women for sex Bailen

email: [email protected] - phone:(762) 407-7337 x 5037

Women for sex Bailen