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A male dominance is furthermore described among victims of sharp-force-injuries, including abdominal stabs, for both aggressions and self-inflicted events [27,31,33,35—37] and suicide victims of plastic bag suffocation [9,13]. From: Forensic Science International, Freddy A. These cultural variations may affect sexual desire, expectations, and attitudes about performance. In some societies, female sexual desire is not considered very relevant particularly when fertility is the primary concern APA,p.
In clinical psychology, feminism has a strong hold in psychotherapy. Feminist psychotherapy emerges as a response to male dominance of mental health professions and institutions, and it objects to the role performed by the mental health establishment in maintaining social and power inequities between men and women as well as between members of the dominant culture and those of ethnic minority groups.
Although feminist therapists use diverse therapeutic techniques, they have a common goal of raising awareness of the harmful effects of discrimination on clients, for example, the effects of job discrimination based on gender, race, or sexual orientation. Probably more important still is that feminist therapists dispute the tendency of traditional male-centered psychotherapies to catalog as normal those attributes identified with the male-dominated mainstream culture and to label as abnormal those characteristics associated with femininity and with minority cultures.
In denouncing traditional psychotherapies for failing to recognize the harmful effects of sexism, racism, and heterosexism, feminist therapists assert that traditional therapies categorize any behaviors that do not fit the interests of the dominant group as problematic. In so doing, traditional therapies silence women.
Feminist psychology also mandates that therapists explore, recognize, and understand their own social biases; that is, they should cultivate awareness of the influence and importance of those biases in their work as therapists. Feminist theorists assume that social inequality, rather than individual psychopathology, often plays a main role in creating and maintaining many of the difficulties presented by clients in psychotherapy, especially when those clients belong to the oppressed groups.
Supervision, advocacy for victims of sexual harassment, and treatment of eating disorders also constitute important topics in feminist psychotherapy where gender is of utmost importance. Morley D. Glicken, Bennie C. Kim and Fiske supported the view that, whatever form it takes, sexual harassment is predominantly about male dominance and superiority. A of earlier writers generally support Black male wants to be dominated by woman belief. MacKinnon indicated that the unequal status of women in the workplace can sometimes lead to sexual harassment.
It was explained by Benson and Grauerholz that even men in inferior social and economic roles sense that they can harass women, which indicates an example of male feelings of dominance. Tangri, Burt, and Johnson described sexual harassment as a means of carrying out unequal male—female interactions based upon established sex status norms.
This is intended to maintain male dominance in the workplace and can often lead to economic discrimination and emotional distress. This behavior may also cause women to become intimidated, discouraged, or lead to termination from work. Burgess and Borgida reported that women view unwanted sexual attention as more harassing, threatening, inappropriate, and uncomfortable than do men.
Matchen and DeSouza studied a unique perception of sexual harassment in the university setting. It is normally assumed that professors would likely be the sexual harassment perpetrators. These scholars found that professors may also be victims of sexual harassment from students. They discovered that male professors receive casual unwanted sexual attention, but appear to experience actual sexual harassment from students at about the same rate as females. The authors also suggested that there might be a need to develop explicit policies that discourage sexual activity by either faculty or students.
Faculty members also need to know that they can take action if a student is sexually harassing them, regardless of the sex or gender of the perpetrator. There are at least two ways of thinking of the broader sociocultural context. One is that behavior at work is merely an extension of male dominance that thrives in the larger society. Overall, there is general agreement in the literature about the characteristics of the sex stratification system and the socialization patterns that maintain it. The exaggeration of these roles can lead to sexual harassment.
For example, men can sexually harass women when they are overly exuberant in pursuing sexual self-interest at work, or they feel entitled to treat women as sex-objects, or when they feel superior to women and express their superiority by berating and belittling the female sex. The second way of thinking of the broader sociocultural context is to study the sociocultural system itself and examine how and why status is ased. According to this view, sexual harassment is an organizing principle of our system of heterosexuality, rather than the consequence of systematic deviance.
Dominance and submission, or power and control are recurring aspects of car cultures Miller,and they are particularly relevant in the context of sexual relationships. As Bricknell p. Definitional power refers to sexual value systems, that is, the categorizations, stereotypes, ideologies, condemnations, and erotic taboos surrounding sexual relationships in contemporary society.
Regulatory power, according to Bricknellis the ability to enforce norms and rules, and the existence and character of punishment structures. Research suggests, for instance, that age is a central parameter in inequality structures, with older men seeking power over younger women Bricknell, Car cultures and their depictions in advertisement or movies address power dimensions in various ways, reinforcing specific value systems, norms, and stereotypes. Several more recent BMW print advertisements objectify women in various forms.
The man on top has raised his upper body, looking down at the woman. The ad communicates that the body of the woman serves the physical process of having sex, while arousal is based on the image of a car.
In a notable extension, the BMW ad represents a subjectification of the car and a simultaneous objectification of the woman. In contemporary contexts, the need to depersonalize or objectify women may be related to changes in social structures, and in particular the loss of male dominance. For example, in the United States, large pickup trucks or SUVs may be considered last frontiers of maleness, functioning as a defense line with regard to anything that is perceived as a threat to lifestyles or personal identities involving specific male-female role models.
Car cultures referring to traditional role models are thus also manifestations of control, as they provide evidence of social and cultural stability, constancy, and the immutability of things. Earlier this year, women became the majority of the workforce for the first time in U. Most managers are now women too. And for every two men who get a college degree this year, three women will do the same. What if modern, postindustrial society is simply better suited to women? Developments in the United States suggest that traditional role models are in a process of reversal, with women gaining independence and men becoming dependent.
Where traditional role models are reversed, identity conflicts arise. These are likely to result in feelings of humiliation and aggression on the side of men. In this situation, SUVs, pickup trucks, and other powerful and large cars serve to maintain the illusion of dominance unchanged. Such spheres of maleness are addressed in a wide range of car advertisement campaigns, and they reverberate in car expos, Internet sites, and popular movie culture. Common to male dominance spheres is that they characterize women as admiring and subdued, as well as sexually committed.
Skill, in this sense, is expressed as mastery of very powerful cars and high speeds. However, from a psychological viewpoint, spheres of maleness are rooted in social insecurity and identity conflict. This insecurity is exploited by advertisement and in car expos. As outlined, various car manufacturers have used gender-specific strategies to sell their products. Spheres of maleness are extended in car expos, where women continue to function as objects alongside cars Plate 5.
The objectification of women can also be extended to related consumer goods, such as alcohol.
As an example, a new alcoholic drink was presented at a car expo in Germany invalidating a positive relationship between driving and drinking Plate 5. The projection of male sexual desires is not necessarily restricted to women, however. Plate 5. Black male wants to be dominated by woman M. Williams, in Handbook of Child and Adolescent Sexuality A major contributor to entry into CSE appears to be perceptions about male—female relationships that place females in a role of passive acceptance of male dominanceas well as reflect an extreme focus on the physical attributes of the male, his desirability to other females, his possessions, his older age, and the flattering nature of his attention and control.
And so I got in the car. A recurrent theme for girls victimized by CSE is the way in which the attention of a desirable older male overwhelmed all caution they might have otherwise experienced. If such a man sought her attention or wished to have sexual relations, in many instances the young girls would respond positively.
I wanted to do it. And he was real cute so, I wanted to do it. For other young women, the seduction by the pimp was enabled by notions of his behavior as part of a repertoire of appropriate male—female relationships:. He came to pick me up.
When he got there, there was a lady in the car, in the front seat … She was just real pretty, little heels, nice little dress, skirt all the way up here to half of her legs. She was looking real pretty and icy, diamonds and everything. He told her to get in the back and let me sit in the front. So she gets in the back. In a short time, however, for some teens, the attentions of an older, cute, possessive male turn to coercion into prostitution.
A cultural and societal frame surrounds the CSE of girls in the United States and contributes to this problem. Prostituting adolescent girls is a booming commercial enterprise with great demand. That these perpetrators and rapists are released, or fined, or sent to school so they can have their records expunged reinforces the message to victimized girls that what happened to them the CSE is not a big deal. Michael S. Hubert Schwabl, in Advances in the Study of Behavior Red-black males have shorter tails than do females or brown males Swaddle et al.
Aviary-based social dominance trials, in which red-black males with similar body size and coloration but relatively large differences in tail length were paired and forced to compete for limited food resources, demonstrated that shorter-tailed males were socially dominant Karubian et al. In the field, shorter tails are correlated with components of reproductive success that may be related to social dominance, such as clutch size, and nonificantly the of surviving young.
There was no relationship between tail length and female mate choice in aviary-based mate choice trials, and molecular analyses of parentage demonstrated that males with longer, rather than shorter tails, tended to sire more young via extra-pair copulations, the opposite pattern predicted if short tail males were selected by females Karubian et al. Thus, while are somewhat ambiguous for the role of tail length in female mate choice, there appears to be clear evidence that shorter tails are associated with social dominance in this species.
It is worth noting, however, that our study population is based in a hybrid zone between two subspecies of the red-backed fairy-wren that differ in tail length and that the aling roles of this trait may differ geographically across the species' range. Deborah L. Best, Kelsey L. Initiation rites and rituals are a socially prescribed way to show others that the initiate has achieved adulthood.
Separation from the family and other-sex peers, initiation into adult sexuality, instantiation of male dominance and aggression, and demonstration of peer group and political loyalties are seen in initiation rituals. Group initiation is found more often for boys than girls and in cultures that emphasize adult gender difference Edwards, The pubertal process does not hold a universal definition across cultures.
In some cultures the crossover from childhood to adulthood is marked by a biological change, while for others it is more of a social occurrence. After initiation, the boy or girl is considered an adult and is expected to work, marry, and have children Herdt, The Sambia of Papua New Guinea initiate boys before their tenth birthday as a way of controlling gender roles in their culture.
In societies that view sexual behavior as strictly reproductive, adolescents are less likely to feel comfortable engaging in such actions. Yet in societies, such as the Trobriand Islanders and the! Kung people of Southern Africa, sexuality is encouraged as recreational and pleasurable outside of marriage Herdt and McClintock, In Western cultures, there is a noted difference between gonadal puberty, with later onset for boys than girls, and sexual maturation Herdt and McClintock, This difference is not typically distinguished in more traditional, non-Western cultures where biological changes are not considered the determinant of puberty.
Western cultures recognize pubertal changes that begin around the age of eight as critical for cognitive and behavioral development that le to mature awareness of sexuality. In some cultures, unlike many Western cultures, open discussion about sexuality is rare and discouraged.
Young Pakistani women report gaining information about their own sexual development from sources within their immediate home while young men gain information from external sources Hennink et al.Black male wants to be dominated by woman
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