Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

Added: Carlus Brimmer - Date: 15.08.2021 16:34 - Views: 43131 - Clicks: 7151

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Hall, M. Chapman, K. Lee, Y. Merino, T. Thomas, and S. Day participated in data extraction. Lee, and B. Payne assisted with analysis and interpretation. All authors were involved in the conception or de of the review and assisted with writing, editing, or revising the content of the article. In the United States, people of color face disparities in access to health care, the quality of care received, and health outcomes. The attitudes and behaviors of health care providers have been identified as one of many factors that contribute to health disparities.

Implicit attitudes are thoughts and feelings that often exist outside of conscious awareness, and thus are difficult to consciously acknowledge and control. These attitudes are often automatically activated and can influence human behavior without conscious volition. Search Methods. To identify relevant studies, we searched 10 computerized bibliographic databases and used a reference harvesting technique. Selection Criteria. We assessed eligibility using double independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria.

Data Collection and Analysis. We included a total of 15 studies for review and then subjected them to double independent data extraction. Information extracted included the citation, purpose of the study, use of theory, study de, study site and location, sampling strategy, response rate, sample size and characteristics, measurement of relevant variables, analyses performed, and and findings. We summarized study de characteristics, and categorized and then synthesized substantive findings. Main. Almost all studies used cross-sectional des, convenience sampling, US participants, and the Implicit Association Test to assess implicit bias.

These implicit bias scores are similar to those in the general population. Although some associations between implicit bias and health care outcomes were nonificant, also showed that implicit bias was ificantly related to patient—provider interactions, treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and patient health outcomes.

Implicit attitudes were more often ificantly related to patient—provider interactions and health outcomes than treatment processes. Most health care providers appear to have implicit bias in terms of positive attitudes toward Whites and negative attitudes toward people of color. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methods to examine the relationships between implicit bias and health care outcomes.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

Interventions targeting implicit attitudes among health care professionals are needed because implicit bias may contribute to health disparities for people of color. Fifteen relevant studies were identified through searches of bibliographic databases and reference lists of studies that met inclusion criteria.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

People of color also face disparities in terms of morbidity, mortality, and health status. Provider attitudes and behavior are a target area for researchers and practitioners attempting to understand and eradicate inequitable health care. As a result, patients of color may be kept waiting longer for assessment or treatment than their White counterparts, or providers may spend more time with White patients than with patients of color.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

Subtle biases may be expressed in several ways: approaching patients with a dominant and condescending tone that decreases the likelihood that patients will feel heard and valued by their providers, failing to provide interpreters when needed, doing more or less thorough diagnostic work, recommending different treatment options for patients based on assumptions about their treatment adherence capabilities, and granting special privileges, such as allowing some families to visit patients after hours while limiting visitation for other families.

Variation in provider behaviors may be driven in part or in full by positive and negative attitudes that providers hold toward various racial and ethnic groups. Negative attitudes toward certain social groups or personal characteristics often exist at the margins of awareness and are not easily accessible to individuals. Social psychology scholars have conceptualized prejudicial attitudes or bias as implicit and explicit.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

On the other hand, implicit attitudes often exist outside of conscious awareness, and thus are difficult to consciously acknowledge and control. For example, White Americans have tended to associate negative valence in general, and certain feelings such as fear and distrust, with Black Americans. For example, during a diagnostic examination with a Black American adolescent, a provider may automatically p that they are sexually active rather than asking open-ended questions about sexual activity and listening carefully to the responses.

Some White health care providers maintain problematic explicit ideas about their Black American patients, viewing them as less intelligent, less able to adhere to treatment regimens, and more likely to engage in risky health behaviors than their White counterparts. Thus, even if explicit attitudes demonstrate a desire to provide equitable care, health care providers Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman unintentionally interact with patients of color less effectively than with White patients, which may contribute to health disparities.

To reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care, we must ascertain the prevalence of biased attitudes among health care providers and whether bias contributes to problems in patient—provider interactions and relationships, quality of care, continuity of care, treatment adherence, and patient health status.

This is therefore an important and emerging area of research. Systematic literature reviews are particularly useful in emerging areas because they synthesize what is known about a topic area, summarize the methods used to study a particular topic, and provide directions for future research. We prepared this review using methods outlined in Cooper 21 and Littell et al. We defined health care professionals as individuals who provided or were in training to provide preventive, curative, therapeutic, or rehabilitative health services to patients.

Examples include physicians, dentists, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurses, midwives, dieticians, chiropractors, podiatrists, clinical psychologists, clinical social workers, phlebotomists, physical therapists, respiratory therapists, occupational therapists, audiologists, speech pathologists, optometrists, emergency medical technicians, and paramedics. We excluded studies that only examined explicit bias, as well as studies that examined implicit bias that was not related to race or ethnicity.

We also excluded articles or reports that were strictly theoretical or conceptual. Finally, we did not use time frame restrictions because implicit bias is a relatively recent construct and we wanted to perform an exhaustive review of the literature.

We consulted a behavioral and social sciences librarian to assist with identifying relevant computerized bibliographic databases in which to search. Searching multiple databases increases the likelihood of identifying all possible studies falling within the scope of the review; we therefore searched 10 databases, some of which included gray literature sources. In addition, we searched the Conference Proceedings Citations Index with terms searched within titles, abstracts, and keywords.

Finally, we searched PubMed with terms searched within titles, abstracts, and subject headings. When available, we used the English language filter. In addition to database searches, we used a reference-harvesting technique to locate relevant studies whereby we examined the reference lists of included studies to identify studies that might have not been incorporated into computerized bibliographic databases, such as papers in press or unpublished studies. We created a checklist of the inclusion and exclusion criteria prior to the search and used it for eligibility assessment.

We piloted the checklist using 4 articles, and then 2 members of the research team who were responsible for screening were trained on the checklist and screening procedures. After performing the bibliographic searches, we imported into the RefWorks software program to assist with organization and duplicate removal.

Following duplicate removal, 84 studies remained. Two trained members of the research team independently screened each of the 84 studies to determine eligibility. We included or excluded most studies after reading the title and abstract; however, it was also necessary to examine the full text document of some studies to determine eligibility.

We excluded 69 studies because they did not meet all of the inclusion criteria. After completing the inclusion and exclusion process, we included 15 studies and then subjected them to data extraction. Figure 1 shows the process of identifying and including studies. We developed a data extraction spreheet to assist with identifying and collecting relevant information from the included studies. Four members of the research team participated in the extraction process.

Each study was independently extracted 2 times by 2 different researchers. There were 21 disagreements between the extractors, which 2 researchers resolved by examining the full text source document. We included 15 studies in this review: 14 peer-reviewed journal articles and 1 doctoral dissertation. Table 1 shows a summary of information extracted from each study. IAT D score is an effect size: 0 indicates no bias, positive scores indicate preference for White people over people of color, and negative scores indicate preference for people of color over White people.

All of the studies sampled participants from the United States, and only 1 study included a small portion of participants from outside the United States. All of the studies used convenience sampling. Only 4 studies sampled participants from multiple locations across the United States. All 15 studies were conducted in the United States, although country in which the research was published was not an exclusion criteria. Twelve studies sampled practicing health care professionals, which included physicians, nurses, and nurse practitioners in the areas of primary care, pediatrics, internal medicine, emergency medicine, and spinal cord injury.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

Three studies included medical, nursing, and pharmacy students as participants. The sample sizes for health professionals varied drastically, from 14 to participants. Five studies had fewer than 50 participants, and 9 studies had between 50 and professional participants.

In most studies, the proportions of males and females were about equal; however, samples tended to have more female than male participants. Six of the 12 studies that sampled practicing professionals measured their professional experience, which showed that about half had less than 10 years of experience. Patient samples consisted primarily of middle-age and older adults. The IAT is a computerized categorization task in which participants sort stimuli e. For example, a participant might demonstrate faster reaction times between negative words e. To score responses on the IAT, a D score is calculated, which is an effect size.

All 14 studies examined associations along the dimension of positive versus negative using words such as wonderful and peace versus words like horrible and evil. Of these studies, 4 also examined associations related to the medical context, such as patient compliance and cooperativeness. Only 1 study 25 did not use the IAT, but instead used sequential priming. In this method, faces were presented very briefly, at a subliminal level, followed by positive and negative words to be evaluated.

Meta-analytic data suggest that sequential priming measures show evidence of validity similar to that of the IAT. Of the 15 reviewed studies, 14 found evidence of low to moderate levels of implicit bias against people of color among health care professionals.

Only 1 study reported no evidence of implicit bias against people of color.

Black male seeking a Denver Colorado or hispanic woman

email: [email protected] - phone:(671) 239-5045 x 2793

Disproportionate Incidence of COVID Infection, Hospitalizations, and Deaths Among Persons Identifying as Hispanic or Latino — Denver, Colorado March–October