Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

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Good career planning le to life fulfillment however; cultural heritage can conflict with youths' personal interests. This systematic review examined existing literature on factors that influence youths' career choices in both collectivist and individualistic cultural settings from around the globe with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps and providing direction for future research. A systematic review strategy using the Joana Briggs Institute's format was conducted. A total of 30 articles were included in the review, findings revealed that youth from collectivist cultures were mainly influenced by family expectations, whereby higher career congruence with parents increased career confidence and self-efficacy.

Personal interest was highlighted as the major factor that influenced career choice in individualistic settings, and the youth were more independent in their career decision making.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

Bicultural youth who were more acculturated to their host countries were more intrinsically motivated in their career decision making. Further research is imperative to guide the understanding of parental influence and diversity, particularly for bicultural youths' career prospects and their ability to use the resources available in their new environments to attain meaningful future career goals. The complexity of career decision-making increases as age increases Gati and Saka, Younger children are more likely to offer answers about their ideal career which may represent their envisioned utopia and phenomenal perceptions about what they want to do when they grow up Howard and Walsh, As children get older, they are more likely to describe their career choice as a dynamic interplay of their developmental stages and the prevailing environmental circumstances Howard and Walsh, Youth career decision-making is required to go through a process of understanding by defining what they want to do and exploring a variety of career options with the aid of guidance and planning Porfeli and Lee, Proper handling of the process affirms individual identity and fosters wellbeing, job satisfaction and stability Kunnen, Many theoretical models have been proposed to explain the process of career development and decision-making, one of which is the Social Cognitive Career Theory SCCT by Lent et al.

According to the SCCT, career development behaviors are affected by three social cognitive processes - self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and career goals and intentions which interplay Stud passion driven on positive Portugal ethnicity, culture, gender, socio-economic status, social support, and any perceived barriers to shape a person's educational and career trajectories Lent et al. This emphasizes the complex interplay between the personal aspirations of youths in their career choices and decision-making and the external influences which act upon them.

Carpenter and Foster postulated that the earlier experiences and influences which individuals are exposed to form the bedrock of how they conceive their career aspirations Carpenter and Foster, These authors' assertion lends support to the tenets of SCCT and they have developed a three-dimensional framework to classify the factors that influence career choice.

Carpenter and Foster proposed that all career-influencing factors derive from either intrinsic, extrinsic, or interpersonal dimensions. They referred to the intrinsic dimension as a set of interests related to a profession and its role in society. Extrinsic refers to the desire for social recognition and security meanwhile the interpersonal dimension is connected to the influence of others such as family, friends, and teachers Carpenter and Foster, Further exploration by other researchers reveal that youth who are motivated by intrinsic factors are driven by their interests in certain professions, and employments that are personally satisfying Gokuladas, ; Kunnen, Therefore, intrinsic factors relate to decisions emanating from self, and the actions that follow are stimulated by interest, enjoyment, curiosity or pleasure and they include personality traits, job satisfaction, advancement in career, and learning experiences Ryan and Deci, ; Kunnen, ; Nyamwange, Extrinsic factors revolve around external regulations and the benefits associated with certain occupations Shoffner et al.

Prestigious occupations, availability of jobs and well-paying employments have also been reported to motivate youth career decision-making Ryan and Deci, Consequently, extrinsically motivated youth may choose their career based on the fringe benefits associated with a particular profession such as financial remuneration, job security, job accessibility, and satisfaction Ryan and Deci, ; Edwards and Quinter, ; Bakar et al.

Beynon et al. Students who are influenced by interpersonal factors highly value the opinions of family members and ificant others; they therefore consult with and depend on these people and are willing to compromise their personal interest Guan et al. Studies have shown that cultural values have an impact on the factors that influence the career choices of youths Mau, ; Caldera et al. Culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one group of people from another Hofstede,Stud passion driven on positive Portugal.

Hofstede seminal work on culture dimensions identified four major cultural dimensions in his forty-country comparative research Hofstede, The second dimension is power distance. In high power distant cultures; power inequality in society and its organizations exist and is accepted. The third dimension - uncertainty avoidance denotes the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity is tolerated in society.

In high uncertainty avoidant cultures, it is less tolerated, whereas in low uncertainty avoidant cultures it is more tolerated. Lastly, masculinity and femininity dimension deals with the prevailing values and priorities.

In masculine cultures, achievement and accumulation of wealth is valued and strongly encouraged; in feminine cultures, maintaining good interpersonal relationships is the priority. Countries that espoused collectivist values may score low and countries that are entrenched in individualistic values may score high on the above-mentioned six cultural dimension score models Hofstede, This model aids the characterization of countries into either individualistic or collectivist cultural settings. On this basis, western countries like Australia, United Kingdom UK and the United States of America USA have been shown to align with individualism and such cultures are oriented around independence, self-reliance, freedom and individual autonomy; while African and Asian nations align more closely with collectivism in which people identify with societal interdependence and communal benefits Hofstede, ; Sinha, Research indicates that basing cultures on individualistic versus collectivist dimensions may explain the classical differences in career decision-making among youths Mau, ; Amit and Gati, ; Sinha, The normative practice in individualistic societies is for the youth to be encouraged to choose their own careers and develop competency in establishing a career path for themselves, while youths from collectivist societies may be required to conform to familial and societal standards and they are often expected to follow a pre-determined career track Oettingen and Zosuls, The interaction between individualistic and collectivist cultures has increased in frequency over the last 20 years due to global migration.

Given that different standards are prescribed for the youths' career selection from the two cultures collectivist—relatedness, and individualistic—autonomymaking a personal career decision could be quite daunting in situations where migrant families have moved from their heritage cultures into a host country. Friction may arise between the adapting youths and their often traditionally focused and opinionated parents as the families resettle in the host countries. According to a report by the United Nations UNthe world counted — million international migrants from torepresenting 3. Migration is defined by the International Organisation of Migration IOM as the movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, or within a state IOM, On this note, Stud passion driven on positive Portugal students might face a daunting task in negotiating their career needs both within host countries' school systems and perhaps within their own family setups.

These migrant youth undoubtedly face uncertainties and complexities as career decision-making trajectory could be different in their heritage cultures compared to the prevailing status quo of the host country's culture Sawitri and Creed, ; Tao et al. As youth plan and make career decisions, in the face of both expected and unexpected interests, goals, expectations, personal experiences as well as obligations and responsibilities, cultural undercurrents underpin what the youth can do, and how they are required to think.

Some studies have examined cross-cultural variations in factors influencing the career choice of youth from both similar and dissimilar cultural settings Mau, ; Lee, ; Fan et al.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

However, there may be large differences between different migrant populations. Given the influence of cultural heritage on career choice and with the increasing s of transitions between cultures, it is important to examine the scope and range of research activities available in the area of youths' career choice, particularly in relation to how movements across cultures affect the youth in their career decision making.

To the best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive review of existing literature available in this area. Using the three-dimensional framework proposed by Carpenter and Fosterthis systematic review aims to examine the factors influencing youths' career choices, with particular reference to cultural impact. It will also identify any gaps in the existing literature and make recommendations that will help guide future research and aid policy makers and educational counselors in developing adequately equipped and well-integrated career Stud passion driven on positive Portugal support systems that will foster a more effective workforce.

A systematic review strategy was devised and the literature search was conducted using the Joana Briggs Institute's JBI format. The subject and keyword searches were conducted in three parts. Career and its cognate terms:. Youth and its cognate terms:. Factors and variables:. The articles included in the final search were peer-reviewed and the references of publications sourced from these searches were hand searched to obtain additional abstracts. Searches of reference and citation lists commenced in Decemberrepeated in March, July and November and finally May to identify and include any new, relevant articles.

Only peer-reviewed articles published in English within the last 20 years and with full text available were included. Studies included in the final analysis were original research articles that focused on career choices of youth from all cultures including migrant youth who are also known as bicultural those who accompanied their parents to another country.

The rationale for using the cultural concepts of collectivist and individualistic cultural settings was inspired by Hofstede's Cultural Dimensional Scores Model Hofstede, Abstracts were excluded if they focused on students below secondary school level and those already in the workforce as the study mainly focused on youth discerning their career choices and not those already in the workforce. Study variables compared were author and year of publication, country and continent of participant enrolment, cultural setting, study de, participant s, and educational level, factors influencing career choice and major outcomes.

Data were crosschecked in a consensus meeting and discrepancies resolved through discussion and mutual agreement between the two reviewers. The third and fourth authors T. E and D. L were available to adjudicate if required. In any event of disagreement, a third reviewer BMA interceded to make a judgement. Both JBI CA tools assess the methodological quality of the included studies to derive a score ranging from 0 low quality to 8 or 10 high quality. Using these tools, studies with a total score between 0 and 3 were deemed of low quality, studies with a score between 4 and 6 were classed as of moderate quality and studies with scores from 7 were deemed to be of high quality sound methodology.

Articles retrieved from the initial database search totaled 5, An additional 38 articles were retrieved from direct journal search by bibliographic search. A total of records remained after duplicates and unrelated articles were removed.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

Of thiswere excluded after abstract review mainly for not meeting the inclusion criteria, leaving 76 full text articles for eligibility check. A further 46 were excluded because they focused on career difficulties, counseling, retention, working adolescents, or the cultural setting was not stated. Applying this screening process resulted in 30 studies for inclusion in the qualitative review synthesis see Figure 1. Figure 1. Search strategy. The figure shows the search strategy including databases assessed for this study.

All three factors Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Interpersonal affecting adolescents' career choices were identified in this review Figure 2. Figure 2. Diagrammatic illustration of the included studies highlighting the factors that influence youth career choices. The figure shows the of studies focusing on each of the three factors intrinsic, extrinsic and interpersonal. No articles focused solely on extrinsic or intrinsic factors. Two studies each explored the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic Choi and Kim, ; Atitsogbe et al.

Table 1 summarizes the 30 articles included in this review.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

Intrinsic factors explored in the literature include self-interest, job satisfaction, and learning experiences. Extrinsic factors include job security, guaranteed job opportunities, high salaries, prestigious professions and future benefits. Meanwhile, interpersonal factors include parental support, family cohesion, peer influence, and interaction with educators.

Italy was considered as partly individualistic and collectivist. Fourteen studies included participants from both collectivist and individualistic cultural settings Mau, ; Lee, ; Caldera et al.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

Twelve studies focused on collectivist cultural settings Yamashita et al. Three studies examined participants who moved from collectivist to individualistic settings Hui and Lent, ; Polenova et al. Twenty-nine of the included studies used a range of quantitative des. Participant s in these ranged from 80 to One study used qualitative de with 12 participants. The quality assessment of methods employed in the 30 studies included in this review are outlined in Table 2. Table 1 and Figure 3 details the study setting and the underlying factors influencing youth career choices.

Analysis of the reviewed articles revealed four major themes namely: extrinsic, intrinsic and interpersonal factors and emergent bicultural influence on career choice. These four major themes had several subthemes and are reported below.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

Figure 3. Career influencing factors. The figures shows identified career influencing factors and their distribution in cultural settings. Extrinsic factors examined in the reviewed articles included financial remuneration, job security, professional prestige and job accessibility. Financial remuneration was identified as the most influential extrinsic factor in career choice decision. While amongst Indian management students, it was rated as the third most important factor influencing career choice Agarwala, Financial reward was also a high motivator for career decision among Chinese migrant students in Canada Tao et al.

Stud passion driven on positive Portugal

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