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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Although sociosexuality was initially considered unidimensional, a tridimensional structure—with behavior, attitudes, and desire as its components—is gaining momentum in the literature nowadays. The present study proposes to develop different predictive models for each dimension, examining the role of personality i.
Participants were university students from a Spanish university Our provide evidence that predictors of sociosexuality vary depending on the dimension under analysis. Being female, older, not having a heterosexual orientation, and not being involved in a current relationship predicted higher scores in sociosexual behavior and attitudes.
Regarding personality, psychopathy and extraversion were the only traits involved in all three components of sociosexuality. Neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness also play a role in the prediction of some of the sociosexuality dimensions. These help to disentangle the relationship between personality and sociosexuality and to de more effective programs and policies to promote sexual health.
It is nowadays common for university students to be involved in casual sex, which encompasses sexual behavior occurring outside a committed, romantic relationship [ 123 ]. Casual sex has been related to risky sexual behavior i.
Thus, having more detailed information about the predictors of casual sex could have important implications in the public health policies of different institutions, for instance in the de of sexual health programs [ 6 ]. The construct that comprises individual differences in willingness to engage casual sex is sociosexuality [ 7 ]. studies are highly widespread and diverse in regards to the conception of sociosexuality on which they are based, the methodology employed, and the obtained.
The main debate is about the dimensionality of the construct. According to the classic approach of the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory SOI; [ 8 ]most of the studies have considered sociosexuality as being unidimensional, a continuum with two poles: Restricted sociosexuality i.
However, years later, Penke and Asendorpf [ 9 ] proposed a tridimensional structure: 1 Sociosexual behavior i. This is not the only claim for a tridimensional structure of sociosexuality: Around the same time as Penke and colleagues, Hillier et al. Additionally, the UNESCO has just released guidelines to sexuality and education researchers taking into these three dimensions to treat sexuality [ 11 ]. The tridimensional structure of SOI-R has been validated in a variety of studies in different contexts [ 121314 ] but research on differences among these three facets of sociosexuality in terms of its predictors, such as demographics i.
This paper aims to fill this gap. Whereas the relationship between unrestricted sociosexuality and low scores on agreeableness and conscientiousness is consistent in research, findings about neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience are mixed [ 151718192021222324 ]. Additionally, it seems that sex and cultural differences should be taken intoat least in some personality traits such as agreeableness and neuroticism [ 24 ]. It consists of a set of three subclinical personality traits: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.
Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, attention-seeking, profound lack of empathy, and a high sense of entitlement [ 26 ]. Machiavellianism involves cold selfishness and pure instrumentality, because manipulation and self-interest are its essential traits [ 27 ]. Subclinical psychopathy is a personality trait characterized by impulsivity, antisociality, absence of remorse, and lack of the ability to empathize or experience guilt [ 28 ].
research pointed out the positive associations between Dark Triad traits and unrestricted sociosexuality [ 2930 ] High scores on narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy appear to be more related to a less serious relationship i. A few years ago, based on its unique features i. Chabrol, Bouvet, and Goutadier [ 32 ] demonstrated that sadism can explain unique variance over the Dark Triad.
Therefore, although dark traits have common characteristics such as callousness and unreadiness for emotional involvement and there could be some overlap, they still remain different constructs [ 33 ].
However, research on the Dark Tetrad and sociosexuality has not been deeply explored.
To our knowledge, Tsoukas and March [ 16 ] proposed the first study analyzing the associations between the Dark Tetrad and mating orientations i. The confirmed positive associations between all dark personality traits and short-term mating orientation, with psychopathy being the most important predictor. Unfortunately, the multidimensionality of sociosexuality has not been taken into till now in research.
This can limit the scope of theas the associations of the three dimensions of sociosexuality with other variables seem to be different [ 12 ]. The goals of this study were twofold: First, to contribute to the study of sociosexuality by examining the predictors of each dimension behaviors, attitudes, and desire ; and second, to analyze the predictive value of the bright and dark traits of personality in the study of unrestricted sociosexuality among university students.
In this sense, we will also evaluate whether sadism adds additional variance to the prediction of casual sex. Several reasons justify the need for the present study. As we noted, inconsistencies in research about the direction of the associations between personality traits and sociosexuality could be due to the consideration of sociosexuality as unidimensional. The tridimensional structure of sociosexuality i.
In this sense, we want to advance existing research on the predictors of sociosexuality also considering contly both sides of personality, bright i. To our knowledge, only Brunell et al. In addition, we intend to provide more data to the existing literature on the differences in sociosexuality based on sociodemographic variables such as sex, age, sexual orientation, or whether the subject had a partner.
The information obtained from this study may be relevant in the implementation of sexual health prevention and promotion programs targeting young people, due to the relevance of Women seeking casual sex Bull Run sex in contemporary university life. The initial sample comprised participants. Of them, we selected those who Women seeking casual sex Bull Run the conditions of a studying a university degree 81 participants excludedb being aged 18 to 26 years participants excludedc labeling themselves as woman or man 7 participants excludedand d correctly answering a control question participants excluded; see below.
By doing so, we followed the inclusion criteria used in other studies with the same population and a similar topic [ 11234 ]. Of them, Data were collected through the internet with Google Forms in November The survey remained open for 14 days. Participants provided informed consent after reading the description of the study, where the anonymity of the responses was clearly stated. Participants had to be 18 years old or older to take the survey.
We developed a questionnaire based on research carried out in Spain [ 11234 ]. Our questionnaire asked participants about their sex, age, sexual orientation heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, otherwhether they had a partner, and whether they were current university students. This instrument has 44 Likert items [ 35 ], with responses ranging from 1 Strongly disagree to 5 Strongly agree.
It has 8 items for Neuroticism e. This is a 27 item self-report measure [ 37 ] of the Dark Triad traits of Narcissism e. Each trait is measured with 9 items on a Likert scale ranging from 1 Strongly disagree to 5 Strongly agree. This scale is a 9-item measure of sadistic personality e. The response format is a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 Strongly disagree to 5 Strongly agree. They reviewed the translation together and agreed on a single version of the scale. Subsequently, a native professional translator reviewed the correspondence between the English and Spanish versions, who agreed with the translated version.
This instrument has 9 items that assess sociosexual orientation on the basis of three dimensions [ 9 ]: Behavioral e.
These items are rated on a 9-point scale, ranging from 1 0 to 9 20 or more for the Behavioral factor; from 1 Strongly disagree to 9 Strongly agree for the Attitudinal factor; and from 1 Never to 9 At least once a day in the Desire factor. We used the Spanish adaptation developed by Barrada et al.
In order to check whether the participants paid enough attention to the item wordings, we introduced an item asking the participants to respond to it with Disagree. The associations of variables were assessed with Pearson correlations. Predictive models of each dimension of sociosexuality were performed with hierarchical regression analysis with control variables in Step 1 i.
To better communicate ourwhen the units of measurement were meaningful on a practical level i. Descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and correlations among the variables are shown in Table 1. All the reliabilities were within the range of 0. Given the large of computed correlations, we will restrict our attention to values over. With respect to dark personality, psychopathy was related to all three dimensions of sociosexuality r s in the range of 0.
Four-step regression analyses for each sociosexuality dimension were run see Table 2. The inclusion of the bright personality dimensions added 7. The inclusion of the Dark Triad dimensions added 4. Due to the purpose of our analysis and that sadism did not add additional explained variance, we will only comment the statistically ificant coefficients of Step 3. Sociodemographic Women seeking casual sex Bull Run demonstrate ificant relationships with all the dimensions of sociosexuality p s in the range of.
Importantly, no dark personality trait other than psychopathy presented ificant associations. Nowadays, casual sex is a common practice among university students. Some studies have concluded that there is a link between casual sex and the performance of risky sexual behaviors [ 45 ]. Therefore, in view of the de and implementation of the most effective preventive and promotional sexual health programs, it is important to know which variables are related to casual sex and sociosexuality.
The role of personality in sociosexual behavior is well supported by the literature, although about the relationship between bright and dark personality traits are mixed. Given that studies analyzed sociosexuality as a whole instead of considering its three dimensions behavior, attitude, and desirewe hypothesized that the inconsistencies of the findings of prior research may be due to this issue.
The present study provides evidence that sociosexuality dimensions have different correlates, expanding the study by Nascimento et al. We shall discuss our findings beginning with sociodemographic variables. The regarding sex showed that men, compared to women, have an unrestricted orientation but only in terms of desire, not of behavior and attitude. As research highlighted, men have more sociosexual desire than women [ 1Women seeking casual sex Bull Run4041 ].
This does not mean that desire and unrestricted sociosexual behavior coincide, because only behavior is limited by competition when seeking a sexual partner [ 89 ]. Contrary to other studies, women showed more unrestricted sociosexual attitudes than did men. A possible explanation for this result is that women are increasingly more the owners of their sexuality in Spain, moving away from traditional gender roles and expressing positive attitudes towards sex without commitment, which used to be associated only with men. In addition, this result and tentative explanation are in line with the recent study conducted in Italy by Silvaggi and colleagues [ 42 ].
Nevertheless, we should take into that the composition of our sample may be affecting our i. Future research might benefit from exploring sex differences in all three dimensions of sociosexuality in greater depth. Regarding age, sociosexual behavior is associated with being older and desire with being younger. In the literature, the relation of age with unrestricted sociosexuality seems to be curvilinear [ 43 ].
Our findings showed a positive association between age and sociosexual behavior, as can be expected due to the way this dimension is measured i. More interesting are the regarding the remaining dimensions: There was no association of age with attitude, which can be explained because attitudes, once shaped, do not change easily. Moreover, there is a negative association of age with desire, which may be due to the kind of relationships established by people at the university stage: At the beginning of this stage, they tend to be more likely to have and desire casual sex, but as time goes by, they tend to have stable committed relationships, which decreases their sociosexual desire [ 89 ].Women seeking casual sex Bull Run
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