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Studies were conducted with codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Laboratory studies first examined the effect of multiple mating of male and female moths on female fecundity and egg fertility. Females that had mated three times had a ificantly higher fecundity than singly mated moths. Sequential mating by male moths had no effect on the fecundity of female moths Men fuck Colony Oklahoma female egg fertility.

However, male moth age did impact female fecundity, with ificantly fewer eggs laid after mating with virgin 1- versus 3-d-old males. The mean size of the first spermatophore transferred by males was ificantly larger than all subsequent spermatophores. The proportion of mated females with small spermatophores partner had ly mated was ificantly higher in treated versus untreated orchards. Nearly one third of female moths, however, had more than a single spermatophore in untreated orchards during the second moth flight.

The potential impacts of multiple mating and delayed mating by male and female codling moth on the effectiveness of sex pheromones are discussed. Various formulations of the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Adoption of sex pheromones has been credited with allowing growers to ificantly reduce their use of organophosphate insecticides Calkins However, for many Men fuck Colony Oklahoma female growers, the use of sex pheromones has not been a panacea, and most orchards in the western United States continue to be treated with supplemental insecticide sprays for codling moth Alway Monitoring female codling moths with traps baited with ethyl E, Z -2,4-decadienoate pear ester has revealed that a large proportion of female moths are mated in sex pheromone-treated orchards Light et al.

These findings suggest that reductions in fruit damage by codling moth observed in orchards treated with sex pheromones may be caused by a combination of mating disruption and a delay in mating Knight Laboratory studies have shown that female moths that mate at an older age have ificantly lower fecundity and egg fertility KnightVickers Female codling moths can mate during the first scotophase after eclosion Howell The occurrence of multiply mated females in sex pheromone-treated orchards has recently been briefly reported Light and Knight However, whether multiple mating of female codling moth in the field affects either fecundity or egg fertility is unknown.

Moth age and sexual experience can also have ificant effects on the subsequent reproductive fitness of male codling moth. Males can mate at the start of the first scotophase after emergence Howell et al. Males under laboratory conditions mate on average three to four times Howell Spermatophore size is reduced after the first mating Howell et al. Unfortunately, the interaction of male moth age and mating order has not been examined in these studies. Several factors can contribute to the transfer of a small spermatophore including mating order and the interruption of mating Howell et al.

Howell b noted that a shift in the mean size of spermatophores occurred in orchards where mass-trapping of males with sex pheromone-baited traps was used. This was purported to be because of a decreased male:female sex ratio.

Whether the application of sex pheromones for mating disruption of codling moth impacts mate competition among males has not been examined. Herein, studies examine the effect of multiple mating of female and male codling moths on female fecundity and egg fertility under laboratory conditions. Data on the mating status and spermatophore and size were also collected from field populations of female codling moth in orchards treated with and without sex pheromone dispensers from to The potential effects of multiple mating of male and female codling moth on the effectiveness of sex pheromone dispensers in managing codling moth populations are discussed.

All laboratory studies were conducted with a colony of codling moth reared on an artificial wheat germ-based diet Toba and Howell Scotophase started at hours and ended at hours. Light levels were maintained at lux during photophase. A simulated 1-h twilight period beginning at hours was controlled by a series of time clocks that switched off incandescent light sources at min steps to light levels of18, and 7 lux.

These steps were reversed during a simulated sunrise period. Laboratory mating studies were conducted with adults placed in clear ml plastic cups with lids.

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Moths were moved in and out of cups h before the start of scotophase. On test completion, the mating status of females was determined by dissection of the bursa copulatrix using a microscope. Plastic cups were cut into two sections, and the total of eggs in the cup and on the lid was counted using a microscope. Eggs were categorized as fertile white, red-ring, black-headed, and hatched or infertile. Infertile eggs were characterized as being mostly clear with only a small amount of disorganized embryonic material. Moths were removed after 7 d, and females were dissected to determine the of spermatophores.

The of fertile and infertile eggs in each cup were counted after 14 d. Two hundred sixty-five cups were set up in this test. Each female moth was replaced with another 2-d-old virgin female every 24 h for 10 d. Replaced females were transferred to a clean plastic cup. Females were dissected after 7 d, and the of fertile and infertile eggs laid in cups were counted after 14 d. One hundred ten males were used in this test. All orchards except four experimental blocks were treated with Isomate-C Plus dispensers Pacific Biocontrol, Vancouver, WA loaded as per label with The two traps were separated by m and placed m from the physical border in each orchard.

Traps were placed in Brewster orchards the first week of May and in the Yakima and Wapato orchards near mid-April. Traps were checked weekly until early September. Lures were replaced every 8 wk, and sticky trap inserts were replaced either weekly or up to a 4 wk interval depending on their condition.

The start date for the second moth flight was established as 1 July. Moths were sexed and female moths were dissected in the laboratory to determine their mating status and the of spermatophores. The maximum width of spermatophores was measured for all females trapped in eight Yakima orchards during Four orchards were treated with 1, Isomate-C Plus dispensers and Men fuck Colony Oklahoma female were untreated.

Studies were conducted in 15, 34, and 29 apple orchards during, andrespectively. Tree heights averaged 4. Before analysis, the assumption of normality was tested for all data sets with the Shapiro-Wilk test Analytical Software If the null hypothesis that data were Men fuck Colony Oklahoma female distributed was rejected, count data were transformed with a square-root transformation and proportional data with the angular transformation to stabilize variances Snedecor and Cochran The relations of male moth age and mating order on spermatophore size, female fecundity, and egg fertility were analyzed independently because of an unbalanced de.

The influences of male moth age were also analyzed separately for each male mating order. Linear regression was used to examine the proportion of males successfully mating based on the of successful mating events and moth age. Spermatophore size in females with one or more than one spermatophore was compared with a t -test.

The mean SE of spermatophores was 2. Spermatophore had a ificant effect on female fecundity Table 1. Moths with three spermatophores laid ificantly more eggs than either females with one or four spermatophores. Female moths with two spermatophores had an intermediate level of fecundity. The influence of spermatophore on egg fertility was not ificant.

Occurrence and influence of single or multiple mating by female codling moth on their fecundity and egg fertility in laboratory studies when a single virgin female moth was placed in a cup with three virgin male moths. The mean SE of females mated by a single male was 1. The of consecutive matings by male codling moth had a ificant effect on the mean width of spermatophores Table 2. The first spermatophore deposited was ificantly larger than all subsequent spermatophores. The second to fourth spermatophore deposited did not differ in size.

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Mating order did not ificantly affect either the mean fecundity of female moths or egg fertility Table 2. Influences of consecutive male mating events and male moth age on spermatophore size, female fecundity, and egg fertility when males were placed in cups with a new, virgin female moth every 24 h. Male age without regard to the of mating events was a ificant factor influencing spermatophore size, female fecundity, and egg fertility Table 2. Mean spermatophore size declined with increases in male age from 1 to 5 Men fuck Colony Oklahoma female.

Mean female fecundity was ificantly higher when mating with 3-d-old males versus 1- 2- 5- and 7-d-old males, and lower with a 1-d-old versus 2- 3- 4- and 6-d-old males. The proportion of fertile eggs was higher when females mated with 2-d-old versus either 1- or 7-d-old males. The mean catch of female codling moths per trap varied during both the first and second moth flight among the four region-treatment classes Table 3.

Moth catches were ificantly higher four to seven times in the Yakima experimental orchards than in the commercial orchards monitored in Brewster or Wapato. Mean moth catches were similar between the treated and untreated Yakima orchards and between Brewster and Wapato orchards during both flight periods, respectively.

Mating status of female codling moths caught on pear ester-baited traps placed in orchards treated with and without Isomate-CM Plus dispensers for mating disruption MDcentral Washington, Orchards were treated with sex pheromone for mating disruption MD of codling moth. The subscript represents the s of Isomate-C Plus dispensers applied per hectare in these orchards.

The proportion of female moths with at least two spermatophores differed ificantly among groups of orchards Table 3. The proportion of multiply mated females was generally lower during the first versus second moth flight.

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Sex-Specific Features of Microglia from Adult Mice