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Jump to content. The of justice-involved women has skyrocketed -- at rates exceeding men. Their entry into the criminal justice system, offense patterns, and levels of risk often follow a different path than men and require more targeted approaches. Correctional administrators need to understand and address these differences to improve outcomes for women offenders.
Assistance is available to local jurisdictions wishing to examine and improve their responses to this population. Agencies with sole or shared responsibility for managing women who come in contact with the criminal justice system can apply for limited, short-term technical assistance. Assistance may focus on women's pathways to criminal behavior and gender-responsive practices that improve outcomes in the community. Agencies can also request technical assistance for reviewing current practices and identifying areas that require the de of more gender-responsive decision making processes, assessment tools, and program interventions that accomplish the jurisdiction's public policy goals.
With few exceptions, every policy, program and practice impacts women across the corrections continuum pre-trial, jails, prisons and community corrections.
As the range of topics is so broad, you will find below a list of topics and additional resources. Find a topic, click, and there will be a of items of interest. Click on the image below to watch a video about Patti Wachtendorf discuss her story about becoming the first female warden of Iowa's toughest prison. The following are a list of "top-shelf" resources that have been hand-picked by our library team around this topic.
If you would like additional research assistance on this topic, please contact our help desk. They have access to specialized databases and thousands of resources you won't find online. Click on a heading below to browse resources in that section. The Hocking Correctional Facility in Nelsonville is being transformed into a jail for women offenders with drug addictions. Inmates will be able to go to rehab while serving their time. CCW-W is an intensive casework model that was developed specifically for justice-involved women. This study will interest those individuals trying to accurately assess the risk and needs of female offenders.
Sections following an abstract include: introduction; gender-responsive needs; gender-neutral risk factors; this study; method; regarding probation, prison, and pre-release; and discussion.
While the validity was high for a gender-responsive supplement to a gender-neutral assessment, 'findings for both gender-neutral and gender-responsive domains suggested different treatment priorities for women from those currently put forward in correctional theory and policy'. This paper describes assessments of female offenders used by correctional agencies and the programs and resources provided by these agencies to meet female offenders' needs.
The assessments tell us what is needed and the programs address identified needs" p.
Topics discussed include: gender-responsive risk assessments and the risk factors they identify; women's pathways to crime—child abuse pathway, relational pathway, and the social and human capital pathway; mental health, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and parental stress; risk factors by correctional setting—prisons, pre-release, and probation; translating the gender-specific research into practice; interventions for women offender populations; and the Gender-Informed Practices Assessment GIPA 12 domains.
Recidivism rates are provided for WOCMM participants and the retrospective comparison matched sample for misdemeanor arrest, misdemeanor arrest with conviction, felony arrest, felony arrest with conviction, any arrest, any arrest with conviction, and any negative outcome including arrests as well as absconding and technical violations. It appears that WOCMM offers a positive gender-responsive impact resulting in lower recidivism rates for project participants. This report is comprised of these sections:.
This document covers: the history of the project; philosophy and core practices; process incorporating four core elements e. The purpose of the project was to inform the development and implementation of gender responsive policies and practices that will address the needs of incarcerated mothers in the Illinois Department of Corrections and reduce the impact of incarceration on their children.
Disrupted Childhoods explores the issues that arise from a mother's confinement and provides first-person s of the experiences of children with moms behind bars. This report explains how mothers and their babies can benefit from being held in a prison-based Mother and Baby Unit MBU.
And whilst their babies represent a relatively small proportion of all children affected by maternal imprisonment, they are arguably the neediest and most vulnerable group.
This report documents the findings of a collaborative research project … The project aimed to map current knowledge and research evidence on childbearing women in prison and their babies and to transfer this learning into policy and practice" p. Findings from this study cover: current provision for childbearing women in prison and their babies; decision-making and unavailability of MBU places; mother and baby relationship during MBU residence; what happens when mothers go to prison and do not secure an MBU place; mother and baby relationship when separation occurs; reentry resettlement and reunification issues—Re-Unite being a good practice example; impact of MBU residence on re-offending; the changing landscape of the female prison estate—custodial changes in prison hubs, and community changes; and concerns arising from the research.
Some of the recommendations made include: "Effective and tailored alternative sentencing options for mothers of young children need to be available; … The benefits of MBUs need to be actively promoted to external staff, to mothers and also to non MBU prison staff; Mothers in prison need programmes which address self-esteem and healthy relationships; Intensive support packages, with a strong therapeutic focus should be put in place for women who have had their babies adopted, during the mother's prison sentence and continued post-release; … [and] Release from prison needs to be viewed as a process not as an event.
The sentence planning of women prisoners who are also mothers needs to include parenting support on release and a 'whole family' approach where appropriate" p. More than 40 percent of parents in prison lived with their children before they were sent to prison and half were the main source of financial support for their children.
The experiences of female inmates, their children, and the present caregivers of those children are examined. Any review of the problems women inmates and their children experience should include this report. Three sections are contained in this document: female prisoners—demographics, criminal histories, family histories, mental health histories, drug abuse histories, children, and concerns and recommendations from the women; caregivers of the children of female prisoners—backgrounds of the incarcerated mothers and the children, experiences of the children at the time of arrest, problems experiences by the children, contact between child and mother, and problems experienced by caregivers; and summary and recommendations.
This tool allows one to evaluate these program elements: theoretical foundation and mission statement; site and facility; administration and staffing; program environment and culture; treatment planning; program development; and program assessment. This training program presents strategies Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois making women offender workplace development programs more responsive to their clients. Topics include:. Data were collected from over women confined in a large prison for women in a Midwestern state, and the relative effects of these factors were examined.
Findings revealed that background characteristics reflecting social demographics e. This report, the second in our two-part series, takes a closer look at the issues facing women who are currently incarcerated. The centerpiece of this report is a survey of women we Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois to learn more about their experiences prior to and during incarceration. The goal of this report is to foster understanding of the role of gender in the New York City justice system.
This monograph underscores the need for policymakers and practitioners to understand the fundamentals of research in order to guide their work with justice involved women. NRCJIW developed a series of Jail Tip Sheets on eight critical topics to facilitate the implementation of gender informed approaches with women in jail settings. We begin with the demographic and background characteristics of female offenders. The pathways model is then described, which emphasizes the life experiences of women that contribute to criminal behavior.
This research touches on a wide variety of public safety concerns, including intimate partner violence, teen dating violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking, as well as criminal justice challenges, including the availability of legal and victim support services, the effectiveness of prevention programs, and the impact of such crimes over time. To give researchers and support providers easier centralized access to recent evidence-based findings, NIJ annually updates a compendium that includes an abstract of each grant research study with details on how to find further publications.
It provides an overview of risk and needs assessments, case management approaches, principles, strategies and programs that take into the needs of women gender-responsive. There are recommendations for creating community-based options for women and 10 key steps for working toward sustainable reductions in the of women in county jails and the creation of gender-responsive community justice systems" p. Sections included in this report are: introduction; historical criminal justice and public health reforms bring new opportunities, funding crucial components; principles and six strategies for effective planning, policies, and practices; best practices and programs for eight topical areas; key steps to a gender-responsive community justice system; and conclusion.
This is a timely and important endeavor given the scale of mass incarceration, of women on probation and parole, and the numerous barriers women with a criminal record face" p. Chapters cover: introduction—problem statement and study ificance; review of the literature—women offenders' pathways to crime, risk assessment tools for women offenders, agency and structure, and study purpose, goals, and objectives; research methodology; for quantitative analysis about the impact of transportation access on recidivism outcomes; for qualitative analysis—descriptive statistics, types, intensity, Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois comparative importance of transportation problems, resources and strategies used to increase transportation access, and relationship between transportation access and recidivism; and discussion and conclusion.
Access to transportation is greatly lacking for women under community supervision. Eighty-three percent of women possessing high levels of access to transportation were not rearrested. We must better prepare ourselves to respond. This document highlights the unique experiences and needs of women veterans who become justice-involved and offers a gender and trauma informed approach that criminal justice practitioners can use to more effectively manage this population" p.
Sections of this publication include: introduction; understanding the challenges facing justice-involved women veterans; symptoms of military sexual trauma MST ; identifying and addressing the needs of these offenders; veteran screening questions to add to established criminal justice intake and assessment processes; barriers to getting women veterans the services they need; and expectations for the future related to promising national initiatives focused on justice-involved veterans. While the use of evidence-based practice EBP is being used by more and more correctional systems, EBP tend to primarily address the needs of men.
Issues specific to females are often overlooked. This void can be filled with gender-specific programming and services. This article provides a glimpse at the various things NIC offers. Some of these assets are technical assistance, training programs, the Gender-Responsive Bulletin and additional material, and models of practice which can improve operational outcomes. Individuals who want an up-to-date understanding of gender-responsive issues and all those who work with female offenders should read this document report.
Sections contained in this document include: introduction to gender-specific treatment; why monitoring Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois should look at this issue; concepts—gender and gender mainstreaming, and discrimination and violence against women; risk factors and measures to reduce risk—certain contexts which heighten risk, certain times that heighten risk, certain policies and practices that heighten risk or cause physical or mental suffering, and certain of women who are at heightened risk girls, victims of human trafficking and sex workers, women with mental healthcare needs, and other groups; and the qualities monitoring bodies need to be effective in this endeavor.
Some of these truths are: women are a fast-growing criminal justice population, yet they pose a lower public safety risk than men; traditional criminal justice policies and practices have largely been developed through the lens of managing men, not women; gender responsive assessment tools can enhance case management efforts with justice involved women; women are more likely to respond favorably when criminal justice staff adhere to evidence-based, gender responsive principles; and the costs of overly involving women in the criminal justice system are high.
Juvenile justice systems reform is occurring across the country as a result of a growing understanding of developmental and neurological differences between youth and adults, the high cost of incarceration, and the consistent failure of a punitive juvenile justice model. However, even as systems are initiating reforms and changing their approach, they are routinely failing to modify those reforms for girls or even to collect data on how girls, specifically, are affected by the problems they are seeking to remedy.
Many of the problems discussed in this report are not unique to girls—and many of the suggested paths forward can benefit both boys and girls. However, because girls are frequently left out of reform discussions, an intentional focus on girls is needed to ensure that they fully benefit from system reforms … If this intentional gender focus does not coexist with current large-scale system reforms, an important opportunity for gender justice and equity and developmental system reforms will be missed p.
System Reform Recommendations; and Conclusion. The accompanying info-graphic is an excellent illustration of: the social context and conflict and abuse at home; understandable behavior linked to trauma and social context; the current system which criminalizes girls' understandable behavior; and a better way which utilizes a developmental approach.
The impact of trauma on girls involved in the juvenile justice system is examined. Sections of this fact sheet cover: why there are increasing s of girls in the juvenile justice system; prevalence of trauma-exposure among justice-involved girls; prevalence of PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder among justice-involved girls; potential consequences of trauma for girls; impact of the juvenile justice system on traumatized girls; and gender-responsive programming.
Experiences of trauma, maltreatment, and victimization play a role in placing many girls on the pathway toward delinquency. Further, girls who participate in delinquent activities are at risk for retraumatization and the additional long-term consequences associated with polyvictimization p. You need to read this document if you work with justice-involved girls.
It explains the serious problems faced with girls in the criminal justice system and suggests ways to address these challenges and meet these girls' critical needs. This Briefing Paper is divided in to four sections: introduction—particular issues facing girls involved in criminal justice systems, s, and the right to non-discrimination; discrimination in the juvenile justice system—gender-specific offences, access to justice, alternatives to detention, and recommendations for eliminating this discrimination; recommendations for responding to the special needs of girls in detention—protection from violence, access to gender-sensitive healthcare, rehabilitation and reintegration, and access to effective remedy and monitoring; and conclusions.
In fact the reverse is true. Girls who offend and who are in detention have distinctive needs that must be identified and addressed so that they receive treatment that is neither better nor worse than that received by boys, but that is equitable. An important first step for policy-makers is to research and identify the background, characteristics and social reintegration needs of girl offenders and to use this to inform legislation and policies in a gender sensitive way. It is hoped that this paper demonstrates the need for gender specific policies that respond to the needs of girls and that the recommendations it contains can be a source of inspiration for law and policy makers to develop a proportionate and gender-sensitive response to offending by girls" p.
This bulletin presents some of their major. Some of the conclusions from this report include: most of the girls were delinquent in their childhood or adolescent years; a wide range of offending behaviors was reported; offenses were not frequent; the majority of girls did not have the same single beginning offense; and girls began and stopped offending at different ages. The event featured Dr. Stephanie Covington, Co-Director at the Center for Gender and Justice, and her work on trauma-informed approaches to girls.
As a nationally recognized clinician, Dr. Covington articulated the need for more gender-responsive and trauma-informed treatment services for women and girls in the public, private, and institutional settings. The second link takes you to the slides for Dr. These efforts require a strong and collaborative leadership team with the will and capacity to undertake meaningful reforms in the treatment of girls at the detention stage. Four chapters comprise this publication: understanding the challenge—the importance of focusing on girls in detention; getting started; using data to reduce inappropriate detention of girls; and developing a Girls Detention Reform Work Plan.
News post discussing Michigan's Department of Corrections policy on invasive strip searches for female prisoners and the impact on women with a history of trauma. Do you need detailed information about how to manage inmate mothers? Then this publication is for you.
The continuously emerging research on female offenders highlights differences from their male counterparts, particularly in the areas of health, mental health, substance abuse and risk. Yet correctional policies rarely reflect those differences and where adaptations are made it is often not in policy or directive, contributing to tremendous inconsistency in the management of women offenders.
One of the most common requests received from the women offender initiative at the National Institute of Corrections is assistance in revising policy that is consistent with the department mission but reflects the differences between men and women. This bulletin, based on survey data and focus groups with women, is an initial step to determine the existence of gender-informed policy within correctional agencies. The findings of this bulletin provide an overview of the current state of gender-responsive policies for women and define a focus for future research, training and technical assistance in the effort to create a more effective, and efficient correctional approach for women offenders" p.
The criminal justice system can address those unique or more frequently occurring needs through further development of gender-responsive policies" p. Sexual assault is a persistent problem in correctional environments with life-altering consequences for victims as well as for the integrity of correctional institutions and the fundamental principles of justice. The U. This guide is intended to help these facilities comply with the Prison Rape Elimination Act PREA standards, which require correctional agencies to 1 follow a uniform evidence protocol when responding to sexual assault, which as appropriate is based on the U.
Sections comprising this document are: recommendations at a glance; introduction to the guide; a primer on corrections-based sexual assault; overview of the sexual assault medical forensic examination for victims in correctional facilities; and recommendations for victim-centered care and for promoting a coordinated team approach. This report is divided into three parts after an abstract and executive summary: Part I, entitled "Gendered Violence and Safety: Improving Security in Women's Facilities," contains the chapters introduction, literature review, gendered violence in women's prisons and jails, and policy implications and recommendations; Part II, entitled "Focus Group Methodology and Findings," covers focus group data collection and methods, individual and relationship factors, community and culture, facility factors, and staff factors; and Part III, entitled "Measuring Gendered Violence and Safety: Research De and Methods," discusses developing the survey, survey development for problems in the housing unit violence, policy, and climate, and factors leading to violence; and summary and conclusions.
Concerns with the U. Preventative Services Task Force's USPSTF recommendations for mammogram breast cancer screening and how these could impact prison screening mammography in prisons are explained. Anyone working with female offenders should Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois this systematic review of 13 studies from to It provides a very good look at effective HIV prevention interventions for justice-involved women.
Interventions delivered fully or partially in the community setting were also more efficacious than those delivered only within a correctional facility. Findings underscore the need for continued development of theoretically based HIV prevention interventions that follow women with criminal justice involvement from correctional settings to the community, explicitly acknowledging the role of social and contextual determinants of HIV risk" p. Data continues to show that women are entering the justice system at rates exceeding male offenders and bring with them extremely complex and multi-layered behavioral and physical health issues.
While systems must make choices on how best to deploy limited staffing and programming resources, this broadcast series is an opportunity to explore methods of coordination between behavioral and physical health care.Ladies seeking hot sex Equality Illinois
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